The ruins of the Old City (Palaiochora) are maybe the most important sight of the island, as it was the capital of the island during the Byzantine years. It is located in the northern part of Kythira, in a natural defensive place over a deep canyon. It was built during the 12th century by people from Monemvasia and its name at that time was Agios Dimitrios.
The city was destroyed in 1537 by the Admiral of Turkish navy Hayreddin Barbarossa, who ravaged the city and killed most of its citizens. There is a myth that says that during the night someone can still hear women’s screams from the time of the murders. In the ruins, someone can still see the castle and the temple of Agia Paraskevi, which both follow the architecture of Monemvasia.